Terminology

Glossary


Bagasse: The fibrous remains after crushing sugarcane or sorghum stalks and extracting the juice. It serves as a source of biofuel in the production of ethanol or also can be used in the manufacture of pulp and building material.

Biobased: Related to or based out of natural, renewable or living sources.

Biobased Chemical: A chemical derived or synthesized in whole or in part from biological materials.

Biobased Content: The amount of new or renewable organic carbon in the material or product as a percent of weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the material or product.

Biobased Product: A product determined by USDA to be a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is : 1. Composed , in whole or in significant part or biological products, including renewable domestic agricultural materials and forestry materials ; or 2. An intermediate ingredient or feedstock.

Biobased Product Industry: Any industry engaged in the processing and manufacture of goods from biological products, renewable resources, domestic or agricultural or forestry material.

Biodegradability: A quantitative measure of the extent to which a material is capable of being decomposed by biological agents, especially bacteria.

Bioeconomy: The global industrial transition of sustainably utilizing renewable aquatic and terrestrial resources in energy, intermediates, and final products for economic, environmental, social and national security benefits.

Bioenergy: Renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. In its most narrow sense, it is a synonym for biofuel, which is fuel from biological sources of energy.

Biomass: Material derived from recently living organisms, which includes plants, animals and their by-products. For example, manure garden waste and crop residue are all sources of biomass. It is a renewable energy source based on the carbon cycle unlike other natural resources, such as petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels.

Bioplastics: Plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such a oil and corn starch. In contrast to conventional plastics that utilize petroleum-based products as raw material, biobased plastic

Biopolymers: Polymers are produced by living organisms that form long chains by the interlocking of repeating chemical blocks. Common biopolymers in nature are cellulose in the cell walls of plants and polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen.

Biorector: A vessel in which a chemical process occurs. This is usually involves biochemically active substances derived from such organisms.

Biorefinery: A facility (including equipment and processors) that converts renewable biomass into biofuels and biobased products and may produce electricity.

Biorefining: Process of production of heat, electricity and fuel from biomass. For example , production of transportation fuel such as ethanol or desiel from natural sources such vegetable oil and sugarcane.

By-product: Substance, other than the principal product, generated as a consequence of creating a biofuel.  For example, a byproduct of biodiesel production is glycerin and a by-product of ethanol production is distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

Cellulose: Fibre contained in leaves, stems, and stalks of plants and trees.  It is the most abundant organic compound on earth.

Co-product: Product that is jointly produced with another product, which has a value or use by itself. 

Emission: A waste substance released into air.

EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch): EFB is the residue produced when palm fruit is taken from a fresh fruit bunch in the initial process of palm oil production.

Enzyme: A protein or protein-based molecule that speeds up chemical reactions occurring in living things.  Enzymes act as catalysts for a single reaction, converting a specific set of reactants into specific products.

Ethanol: Alcohol containing two carbon atoms per molecule with about two-thirds the energy density of gasoline, mostly fermented from corn starch or sugar cane, also known as grain alcohol.

Feedstock: Raw material used in an industrial process such as the production of biobased chemicals.

Glycerol: Is a major by-product in the biodiesel manufacturing process. In general, for every 100 pounds of biodiesel produced, approximately 10 pounds ofcrude glycerolare created.

Hemicellulose: Groups of complex carbohydrates that surround the cellulose component of the cell wall in plants.  Like cellulose, hemicellulose also functions as supporting material in the cell wall.

Intermediate ingredient or feedstock: A material or compound that has undergone processing (including thermal, chemical, biological, or a significant amount of mechanical processing), excluding harvesting operations.  It is subsequently used to make a more complex compound or product.

Lignin: A polymer of aromatic alcohols that is a constituent of the cell wall in plants.  Lignin stores energy and offers strength to the cell.  It is the second most abundant natural polymer in the world after cellulose and serves as a large scale source of biomass.  

Lignocellulose: Inedible plant material, mostly comprised of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin.  It includes agricultural waste, forestry waste, industrial waste, and energy crops.

Nanocellulose: Nano-structure cellulose produced by bacteria.

Palm oil: A form of vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree.  Palm oil and palm kernel oil are composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol just like any ordinary fat.  Palm oil is a widely used feedstock for traditional biodiesel production.

Softwood: Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers. Softwood is the source of about 80% of the world's production of timber, with traditional centres of production being the Baltic region (including Scandinavia and Russia), North America and China.

Sorghum: A drought resistant genus of plants in the grass family.  Sorghum serves as staple food in several dry and arid regions.  It is also used as animal feed and in the production of alcoholic beverages and sweeteners.  The high sugar content in sweet sorghum allows it to be fermented for the production of ethanol.

Switchgrass: Prairie grass native to the United States known for its hardiness and rapid growth, often cited as a potentially abundant feedstock.

Thermal conversion: Process that uses heat and pressure to break apart the molecular structure of organic solids.

 

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